• FA-118306 © Technisches Museum Wien, Photo: Peter Sedlaczek
  • FA-118308 © Technisches Museum Wien, Photo: Peter Sedlaczek
Collection Area
Everyday Life
Household Technology
1950 - 1959
  • Dr. Roswitha Muttenthaler
At the moment this object is not published in the museum.

Espresso machine "Faema Nettuno", 1950s

There are various ways of making coffee: only the high pressure used for making espresso dissolves the aromatic coffee oils in such a way that the richly aromatic "crema" is formed.

The art of making coffee has come up with various methods of preparation since coffee was initially introduced to Europe. The quality of the water and coffee, the degree of roasting and grinding, the dosage as well as the brew time and temperature must all be taken into account. Just like the instantaneous water heating system of filter coffee makers, the espresso machine is also a technical development of the 20th century. Unlike coffee making using the filtering procedure, espresso is made cup by cup to ensure the freshest flavour possible.

The special machine technology causes the ground coffee to dissolve in water which is under overpressure. This requires a water pressure of 9 bar, a water temperature of 90 - 95° C and 30 seconds throughput time. The fine powder is compressed to ensure that the water goes the long way round, absorbs a sufficient amount of ingredients and is not pressed through too quickly. In this way, more of the easily soluble aromas are extracted than of the bitter substances and acids.

In the first models, which became available from 1901 onwards, the hot water was pressed through the powder by means of steam. In this process, some of the steam also found its way into the powder. This pressure-temperature interdependence was disbanded to avoid burning the powder. In 1946, Gaggia introduced a new type of machine where a lever is pulled to apply pressure to a spring which pushes against a piston and thereby compresses the water.

From about 1947 onwards, the company Faema started producing lever machines named after celestial bodies: Venere, Mercurio, Marte, Nettuno and Urania. The Technisches Museum Wien (Vienna Technical Museum) has the gas-heated "Nettuno" on exhibit. Unlike most lever machines, it has two water boilers: one for the brewing water and one for preheating / steam.

The lever machine, which requires physical exertion, was later replaced by electrical pumps. A freshwater flow path replaced the water standing in the boiler, which was heated up in portions. The E61, which was introduced to the market in 1961 by the company Faema, is seen as a milestone.

Inv.Nr. 74648/1
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